A diverticulum (plural: diverticula) is medical or biological term for an outpouching of a hollow (or a fluid filled) structure in the body. In medicine the term usually implies that the structure is not normally present, i.e., pathological. However, in the embryonic stage, some normal structures begin development as a diverticulum arising from another structure.
Usually, in adults its formation is due to advanced benign prostatic hyperplasia and bladder outflow obstruction, in other words, due to the overgrowth of the prostate and obstruction of the urethra that is lasting for many years decompensate the bladder wall/muscle.
Diagnosis is placed with cystoscopy or with ultrasound, intravenous urography or computed tomography (imaging modalities: 1: diverticulum, 2: bladder).
Often we find stones or tumors inside the diverticula.
Treatment aims to relieve the patient from the symptoms of the presence of the divertculum and at the same time to relief the obstruction in order to reduce the risk of recurrence. There are numerous modalities for that:
- Open adenomectomy and diverticulectomy
- Laparoscopic robotically assisted diverticulectomy and transurethral resection of the prostate
- Laparoscopic robotically assisted diverticulectomy and Holmium Enucleation of the Prostate
- Laparoscopic robotically assisted diverticulectomy and Photoselective Vaporisation of the Prostate
The last two options are those more minimally invasive and recommended as the best by the author.